Title

Graduation and release: Kwanzaa as a reference group. An exploratory case study of Black male college graduates and Black male jail releasees from Baltimore City

Document Type

Book

Publication Date

2009

Date Added

2022-05-16

Abstract

This project is an exploratory case study that assesses the degree to which Black male college graduates (BMCs) and Black males who have been released from jail or prison (BMRs) identify with the Kwanzaa principles. BMCs and BMRs face many socio-economic risk factors (SERs) which are related to their college graduation rate and their involvement in the criminal justice system (Carnoy, 1994; Gibbs, 1988; Noguera, 2003; Streeter, 2001). Afrocentric theorists have concluded that Afrocentric values like Umoja (unity), Ujima (collective work and responsibility), and Ujamma (economic cooperation), are a reference group that help to reduce the effect of SERs (Asante, 1980; Bishop, 2002; Crouch, 1996; Harris, 2005; Horton, 2003; Karenga, 1988; Mazama, 2002; Oliver, 1987; Reviere, 2001; Winbush, 2001; Winters, 1994).

Disciplines

Sociology

Publisher

Howard University

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