Title

Environmental Causes of Esophageal Cancer

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Gastroenterology Clinics of North America

Publication Date

2009

Date Added

2022-09-07

Abstract

This article reviews the environmental risk factors and predisposing conditions for the two main histologic types of esophageal cancer. Tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drinking maté, low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, achalasia, and low socioeconomic status increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Results of investigations on other potential risk factors, including opium consumption, intake of hot drinks, eating pickled vegetables, poor oral health, and exposure to human papillomavirus, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, acetaldehyde, and fumonisins are discussed. Gastroesophageal reflux, obesity, tobacco smoking, hiatal hernia, achalasia, and, probably, absence of H pylori in the stomach increase the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Results of studies investigating other factors are also discussed.

DOI

10.1016/j.gtc.2009.01.004

Keywords

Health

Disciplines

Biology

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