Exploring Resilience and Determinants of Resilience at Individual, Community and Systems Levels among Black Sexual Minority Men.

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Date Added



This mixed methods dissertation explored resilience and determinants of resilience at individual, community and systems levels among Black sexual minority men (BSMM). Manuscript one examined what are the individual and social network characteristics associated with high self-efficacy in communicating with peers about men’s health issues (HS) among 256 BSMM. In the multivariate logistic model, gay identity (AOR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.15,3.83), involvement in the house and ballroom community (AOR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.14,5.49), larger number of network members who are living with HIV (AOR: 6.34, 95% CI: 1.48,27.11), and larger number of network members who would loan them money (AOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.05,2.03) were statistically significantly associated with HS. Manuscript two explored resilience-based mechanisms and determinants BSMM report to facilitate their well-being in the context of church, religion or spirituality. Nine focus groups (N = 52) were conducted between 2017 and 2018. Thematic analysis evaluated domains related to experiences of homophobia and stigma. Three primary themes were identified: (1) processes of maintaining well-being in the context of homophobia and marginalization from family and community members; (2) utilizing religion and spirituality to reduce perceived risk behaviors; and (3) positive sense of sexual identity to promote the well-being. Manuscript three examined the association between incarceration within the past three months (i.e., recent incarceration) and psychological distress (K10) among 1,482 BSMM and Latino SMM (BSMM: 911, Latino SMM: 571). Findings reveal 768 (52%) were previously incarcerated, but not in past 3 months and 138 (9.3%) had been recently incarcerated. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess previous incarceration and psychological distress. After adjusting for race, education, access to resources, current living arrangement, HIV status, and substance use, participants who had been recently incarcerated were more likely to have mild psychological distress i.e., K10 score 20-24 (aRRR:1.43, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.71) or severe psychological distress, i.e., K10 score>30 (aRRR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.93) in the past 4 weeks than those never incarcerated and those previously incarcerated, but not in past 3 months. Overall, these findings have implications for addressing the unmet needs and development of HIV prevention and mental health services for BSMM.


Social Work